Mars Express, launched on this day in 2003, was the first visit to another planet by the European Space Agency (ESA). And, unlike many of the modern long-range voyagers mentioned in these pages, the name “Express” is there to denote speed; it is not a highly-convoluted acronym describing the mission.
The journey to Mars began at the Baikonur Cosmodrome and ended six months and 23 days later in orbit around the red planet. With seven instruments on board, Mars Express was able to study just about all physical aspects of its new home, including geology, mineralogy and atmosphere.
Highlights of the mission have included the discovery of minerals which only form in the presence of liquid water, radar detection of subsurface water ice, the possible detection of methane in the atmosphere, and evidence for an ancient system of underground lakes.
Another impressive result was how close Mars Express managed to get to the larger of Mars’ two moons, Phobos. The image below was taken from 351 km, but closest approach was 67 km.
The Mars Express orbiter is still going strong, and is expected to remain in service until 2022. Which is more than can be said for the British component of the package, the Beagle 2 lander, which landed on the surface in an impact crater called Isidis Planitia on December 25th 2003, and was never heard from again. More than a decade later a camera on board NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spotted Beagle 2, and close inspection suggested that not all of Beagle’s solar panels deployed successfully.
There’s plenty more to read about this mission at the ESA Mars Express website.
1967 — The unmanned US probe Surveyor 1 landed on the Moon.
1998 — Launch of space shuttle Discovery mission STS-91, carrying the prototype AMS-01, the first of two Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer missions.