March 31 – 40 Harmonia

Main-belt asteroid 40 Harmonia was discovered by Hermann Goldschmidt on March 31st, 1856.  It is an S-type main belt asteroid, about 107 km in diameter.  One of 14 asteroids discovered by Goldschmidt, Harmonia is named after the Greek goddess of (obviously) harmony.  Her Roman counterpart was Concordia (who also has an asteroid named after her, discovered in 1860).  The name was chosen to mark the end of the Crimean War, which officially came to an end, with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, on the day before Harmonia was discovered.

Despite her harmonious attributes, the most popular stories surrounding this goddess involve a necklace she received on her wedding day, possibly from Hephaestus (different sources give various donors).  This necklace, while it apears to have had no adverse impact on Harmonia herself, had a long life bringing misery and death to all who owned it after her.

Polynices giving Eriphyle the necklace of Harmonia.
Polynices giving Eriphyle the necklace of Harmonia.

The photograph shows a red figure oinochoe (wine jug) by the Mannheim painter.   Eriphyle is being bribed by Polynices to get her husband Amphiaraüs to become embroiled in the battle of the “Seven Against Thebes”.  She was later to do the same to her son, Alcmaeon.  When he found out what she’d been up to, he killed her.

1886  –  Asteroid 254 Augusta was discovered by Austrian astronomer Johann Palisa on March 31st 1886.  It is a small main belt asteroid of about 12km diameter, and is of spectral type “S”.  It was named after Auguste von Littrow,  the widow of astronomer Carl Ludwig von Littrow.

1886  –  Asteroid 255 Oppavia is another main belt asteroid, and was also discovered on March 31st 1886 by Johann Palisa.  It’s rather larger than Augusta, at 57 km wide, and is a P-type.

The Arms of Opava
The Arms of Opava

Opava is the name of the town where Palisa was born.  It is currently in the Czech Republic, but at the time of Palisa’s birth it was part of the territory known as Austrian Silesia (following the War of Austrian Succession) which is why he is an Austrian astronomer.  Opava’s most famous daughter is Joy Adamson, author of “Born Free”.

2005  –  The large trans-Neptunian object (TNO) and Kuiper Belt object (KBO) Makemake was discovered nine years ago today.  As well as being as TNO, Makemake’s size allows it to bask in the title “dwarf planet”, and while various studies give varying opinions regarding the precise extent of that size, the prevailing view seems to be that it’s around 1,400 to 1500 km in diameter.  Unfortunately for early planet hunters, though, it’s also a very long way away,  (magnitude 16.7 at opposition) and has an unusually high orbital inclination, which is why it was only discovered so recently.

Spectral analysis of the surface suggest that up to 90% is covered in ices of methane and Nitrogen, with “tholins” also present, giving Makemake a reddish appearance visually.  It has almost no atmosphere, and (unusually for such a large TNO) no satellites.

1891  –  Discovery of asteroid 308 Polyxo by Alphonse Borrelly. Measuring 130 km across, Polyxo is one of the rare, mysterious T-type asteroids. There are multiple Polyxo’s in Greek mythology, but I believe this particular asteroid was named after one of the Hyades.

1997  –  Death of Lyman Strong Spitzer Jr.