On this day in 1958 Explorer 1 was launched by the USA in response to the USSR launching Sputnik 1 the previous October. The launch was operated by the Army Ballistic MissileAgency, the organisation for which Werhner von Braun worked after the War. It carried a cosmic ray detector, provided by Dr James Van Allen (yes, the same one the radiation belts are named after).
Explorer 1 only had a brief existence, transmitting until its batteries drained in late May of 1958, and burning up in 1970 when it re-entered the atmosphere.
January 31st 1961 saw two launches, MR-2and Samos 2. Samos 2 was a reconnaissance satellite with a short lifespan and even shorter piece in the history books. The Samos surveillance satellites were a US Air Force programme, able to record video and transmit back while over US airspace.
MR-2, however, made a bigger splash. It carried Ham, a chimpanzee, on a quarter of an hour trip to approximately 130 miles up. He apparently appeared unfazed by his trip but as, presumably, nobody asked him about his experience, we only have the word of NASA scientists on this one.
Also today we have Luna 9, launched in 1966, the first spacecraft to successfully soft-land on the Moon, and Apollo 14, the eighth manned Apollo mission, which blasted off from the Kennedy Space Centre under the command of Alan Shepard, (the first man to smuggle golf balls to the Moon) en route for their FraMauro landing site. I’ll have more to say about Apollo 14 on Feb 5, the day they landed.
C-type main-belt asteroid 232 Russia was discovered today in 1883 by Johann Palisa, and named after the country.
Spacecraft Ranger 6 was launched by NASA on January 30th 1964 from Cape Canaveral. The plan was to transmit high resolution pictures back from the surface of the Moon. Ranger 6 did indeed make it to the Moon, landing in the Mare Tranquillitatis on Feb 2nd, but was never heard from again (a short-circuit during separation from the launch vehicle had rendered the cameras inoperative).
Not wanting to feel left out, the Russians on this day in 1964 managed to launch two spacecraft at once for the first time. Elektron 1 and Elektron 2 were hoist skyward atop a Vostok-K rocket to study the Van Allen radiation belt and the Earth’s magnetic field. The two were launched simultaneously to allow the inner and outer belts to be studied at the same time. I believe all 350kg (771 lb) of Elektron 1 is still up there.
S-type main belt asteroid 180 Garumna was discovered by Henri Joseph Perrotin on January 29th 1878. Perrotin was working in Toulouse at the time, which probably affected the choice of name for his discovery (see below) a habit carried on from his first find, 138 Tolosa(Toulouse).
Garumna is the Latin name for the Garonne river, which rises in the Spanish Pyrenees and flows northwards through southern France before emptying into the Gironde.
Asteroid 382 Dodona was discovered on this day in 1894 by Auguste Charlois. It’s fairly big (over 58km in diameter) and classified as M-type, implying it is probably largely metallic in composition.
Dodona is in northwestern Greece, and was the site of the oracle of Dione and Zeus, second only to Delphi in prestige. Oracles were taken seriously by all strata of Greek society. King Croesus was so keen to make sure he was getting accurate information from them he sent emmisaries to all the major oracles and got them all to predict at the same time what he was doing. Delphi proved to be the most accurate, informing the king that he was cooking a lamb and tortoise stew. I’m pretty sure the average 21st century astrologer or psychic couldn’t compete with that.
1894 ⇒ Also on January 28th, we have the discovery of C-type main belt asteroid 383 Janina. And for the second time today it was spotted by Auguste Charlois.
Jupiter’s moon Pasiphae(known as 1908 CJ when first discovered, then Jupiter VIII)was first seen by human eyes on January 28th 1908. The eyes in question belonged to Philibert Jacques Melotte, a British astronomer, despite the name, and the actual discovery date goes down as the 27th rather than the 28th because that was when CJ was first photographed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory. It’s one of the retrograde satellites of Jupiter, and was eventually named after the mother of the Minotaur (a name with an “e” on the end, in the manner suggested by Jürgen Blunck to distinguish between Jupiter’s prograde and retrograde moons) after being informally known as Poseidon for a while.
There’s apparently no rush at the International Astronomical Union. The name Pasiphae was finally proposed by the “Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature” at the same time as eight other Jovian moons, in October 1975, 67 years after discovery. It was then accepted by the IAU General Assembly the following August.
Pasiphae is a small moon by the standards of more well-known satellites at about 20km radius, but because of the enormous quantity of Jovian moons, most of which have radii in single figures, it’s actually one of the larger.
1904 – Asteroid 523 Ada discovered January 29th, 1904 by American astronomer Raymond S. Dugan. He named it after Ada Helme, a schoolfriend from Montague, Mass.
1967 – Gus Grissom, Roger Chaffee and Ed White are killed in a cabin fire aboard Apollo 1. Officially designated AS-204, the name was changed to Apollo 1 at the request of the widows of the crew.
Asteroid 159 Aemilia was discovered by the brothers Henry (this one was attributed to Paul) on January 26th 1876. It’s a dark C-type asteroid of about 127 km wide, with a rotation period of approximately 25 hours. It orbits with the Hygiea asteroids, but is rather larger than the rest, so may not be a member of the family.
According to the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, by Lutz Schmadel (Springer Verlag), himself no mean discoverer of asteroids, it is probably named after a famous Roman road, the Via Aemilia. I can’t argue with that, but I will mention that there are other possibilities. The road was named after a Roman consul, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, a member of an extremely old and well-connected Roman family, any one of whom might have inspired the name. Then again, Aemilia is thought by some to have been the mother of Romulus. Or perhaps the Henry’s were thinking of the Vestal virgin found guilty of breaking her vows of chastity?
The lack of a definite ID on the name results in a lack of photography, so here is a snap of Paul and Prosper Henry, looking jovial and lighthearted.
IRAS, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite was the first space-based observatory to perform a whole sky (almost: it covered 96%) infrared survey. It was launched on January 25th 1983 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, and was a joint US/UK/Netherlands project. It identified over 350,000 new infrared sources, expanding the catalog by about 70%.
You can get an idea of just how big the survey was in the following image, looking across the plane of the Milky way, and showing a point for each infrared source. You also get to see the fairly obvious bits it missed out.
The blue points in the image are stars, yellowy-green patches are galaxies, and red is infrared cirrus, cloud-like structures of cool (about 25 Kelvin) galactic dust, identified for the first time by IRAS.
Somewhat surprisingly for an observatory dedicated to the discovery of fixed point sources, IRAS also gets a mention as a discoverer of three asteroids and six comets. The asteroids are a Mercury-crossing Apollo called 3200 Phaethon, parent of the Geminid meteors; the main belt asteroid 3728 IRAS, and the unnamed (10714) 1983 QG, discovered August 31st 1983.
Also today, in 1967, we have the launch of Cosmos 139.
1986: Voyager 2 makes its closest approach to Uranus. The seventh planet from the Sun was reached after a journey lasting more than eight years. It was a great success, discovering ten new moons, and two new rings.
The moons shown in the above photograph are Portia, (1986/U1), Cressida (1986/U3), and Rosalind (1986/U4).
It isn’t clear whether the rings of Uranus were known prior to 1977 when they were discovered by Elliott, Dunham & Mink. William Herschel had reported seeing them almost 200 years previously, but he might have been making an educated guess, as they would have been very hard to see with the instruments available at the time.
As far as I know there are no definite plans to re-visit Uranus in the near future. Several missions have been suggested, but it takes a long time to get there, making it expensive, and these days you need to prove that it’ll be worth it.
1882 – Birth of Harold Babcock in Edgerton, Wisconsin.
Auguste Charlois strikes again! On January 21st, 1893, one day after 355 Gabriella (see yesterday’s blog) he discovered 356 Liguria, another large main belt asteroid (about 155 km in diameter).
The name of today’s asteroid refers to the coastal region of Italy of which Genoa is the capital. I hold Genoa in particularly high esteem as the home of the best ice cream I ever tasted.
1960 – Spacecraft LJ-1B launched carrying the Rhesus monkey “Miss Sam” to a height of eight miles. Miss Sam was in a more fortunate position than many early “astronauts”, in that her flight was to test emergency abort and recovery procedures, so getting her back alive was top priority.
Today’s asteroid, 355 Gabriella, was discovered on January 20th, 1893, by Auguste Charlois, and is yet another nod to the Flammarion family. It is a fairly ordinary main belt asteroid, and is named for Gabrielle Renaudot Flammarion, general secretary of the Société Astronomique de France, and wife of Camille Flammarion, who we have also met in these pages.
Gabrielle was a bit of a Mars buff, and now has a crater on the red planet named in her honour.
We have two quick asteroids to start us off today. Asteroid 502 Sigune was discovered on January 19th 1903 by old hand Max Wolf at Königstuhl Observatory near Heidelberg. On the same day, young whippersnapper Raymond Smith Dugan, also working at Heidelberg, discovered the second asteroid of his career, 503 Evelyn (named after his mother).
On January 19th 2006, NASA launched the New Horizons probe to Pluto, so long ago it was still a planet at the time (and always will be for some of us). I clearly remember thinking back then that it was going to take such a long time to arrive that I’d probably have forgotten all about it, but here we are a decade later and the visit is now on the cusp of becoming a fond and fading memory.
New Horizons was a fairly large program by today’s standards, costing about $650m, which sounds expensive, but it’s actually only about $5 per US taxpayer, and spread over the 15 years of the project it’s a mere 33 cents a year: a bargain! The mission has also visited Jupiter, and now that Pluto has been passed there are plans to rendezvous with at least one Kuiper Belt Object in the relatively near future (2019). The object chosen doesn’t have a particularly catchy name yet (it’s 2014 MU69), and is apparently also known in New Horizons circles as PT1 (and yes, it does stand for “Potential Target”). PT1 has been imaged several times by the Hubble Space Telescope to determine suitability as a target. It is estimated to be about 30 to 44 km wide.
The Jupiter flyby, as well as being a scientific mission in its own right, and a useful testing-ground for the instrumentation before an extended period of hibernation for the long journey to Pluto, was used to increase the speed of New Horizons by “gravity assist” to 9,000 miles per hour. I think I’ll have to get myself one. At that speed I could travel across the Atlantic to visit my friend Joanne in Pennsylvania in about 20 minutes.
During the visit to Jupiter, New Horizons imaged the moon Callisto, and studied Jupiter’s ring system, magnetosphere, and the atmospheric conditions on the planet.
Scientific instruments on New Horizons are under the command of the Clyde Tombaugh Science Operations Centre in Colorado, and a small quantity of the ashes of the centre’s namesake, the man who discovered Pluto in February 1930, have been sent along for the ride. Tombaugh died on January 17th 1997.
Imaging of Pluto using New Horizons LORRI imager began in January 2015. Hundreds of photographs were taken of the Pluto system, enabling navigators to fine tune Pluto’s exact position, and calculate the precise distance between New Horizons and its target.
And at the time we thought these images were pretty impressive; but they were nothing compared to what we got when the Pluto system was reached.
See what I mean?
1747 – Birth of Johann Elert Bode in Hamburg. The “law” named after Bode uses a formula to predict the distances of the planets from the Sun. It’s great for the first six, and was hailed a success when Uranus (a name suggested by Bode) was found in the right place. Unfortunately, the existence of the asteroid belt and Neptune were not part of the plan. Bode has a comet, an asteroid (998 Bodea) and a galaxy (M81, Bode’s Galaxy) named after him (though I suspect any inhabitants of M81 might disagree).
1965 – Launch of Gemini 2 from Cape Canaveral. This was an unmanned flight, but it did include a practice ingress (clambering in) and egress (being pulled out) by crewmembers of Gemini 3. Following two occasions on which the launch assembly had to be dismantled (for hurricanes Cleo and Dora) and an aborted launch on December 9th, 1964, the eighteen minute flight took place on the morning of January 19th, 1965, and was only slightly inconvenienced by a power outage at Mission Control caused by the electricity demands of the television coverage.